Filename: 109-no-sharing-ips.txt
Title: No more than one server per IP address
Author: Kevin Bauer & Damon McCoy
Created: 9-March-2007
Status: Closed
Implemented-In: 0.2.0.x

  This document describes a solution to a Sybil attack vulnerability in the
  directory servers. Currently, it is possible for a single IP address to
  host an arbitrarily high number of Tor routers. We propose that the
  directory servers limit the number of Tor routers that may be registered at
  a particular IP address to some small (fixed) number, perhaps just one Tor
  router per IP address.

  While Tor never uses more than one server from a given /16 in the same
  circuit, an attacker with multiple servers in the same place is still
  dangerous because he can get around the per-server bandwidth cap that is
  designed to prevent a single server from attracting too much of the overall

  Since it is possible for an attacker to register an arbitrarily large
  number of Tor routers, it is possible for malicious parties to do this
  as part of a traffic analysis attack.

Security implications:
  This countermeasure will increase the number of IP addresses that an
  attacker must control in order to carry out traffic analysis.


  For each IP address, each directory authority tracks the number of routers
  using that IP address, along with their total observed bandwidth.  If there
  are more than MAX_SERVERS_PER_IP servers at some IP, the authority should
  "disable" all but MAX_SERVERS_PER_IP servers.  When choosing which servers
  to disable, the authority should first disable non-Running servers in
  increasing order of observed bandwidth, and then should disable Running
  servers in increasing order of bandwidth.

  [[  We don't actually do this part here. -NM

  If the total observed
  bandwidth of the remaining non-"disabled" servers exceeds MAX_BW_PER_IP,
  the authority should "disable" some of the remaining servers until only one
  server remains, or until the remaining observed bandwidth of non-"disabled"
  servers is under MAX_BW_PER_IP.

  Servers that are "disabled" MUST be marked as non-Valid and non-Running.


  MAX_BW_PER_IP is 8 MB per s.


  Upon inspection of a directory server, we found that the following IP
  addresses have more than one Tor router:

  Scruples     443
  WiseUp     9001
  Unnamed  9001
  Unnamed  9001
  Unnamed  9001
  aurel     9001
  sokrates     9001
  moria1   9001
  peacetime   9100

  There may exist compatibility issues with this proposed fix.  Reasons why
  more than one server would share an IP address include:

  * Testing. moria1, moria2, peacetime, and other morias all run on one
    computer at MIT, because that way we get testing. Moria1 and moria2 are
    run by Roger, and peacetime is run by Nick.
  * NAT. If there are several servers but they port-forward through the same
    IP address, ... we can hope that the operators coordinate with each
    other. Also, we should recognize that while they help the network in
    terms of increased capacity, they don't help as much as they could in
    terms of location diversity. But our approach so far has been to take
    what we can get.
  * People who have more than 1.5MB/s and want to help out more. For
    example, for a while Tonga was offering 10MB/s and its Tor server
    would only make use of a bit of it. So Roger suggested that he run
    two Tor servers, to use more.

[Note Roger's tweak to this behavior, in]