If an attempt to extend a circuit fails (either because the first create failed or a subsequent extend failed) then the circuit is torn down and is no longer pending. (XXXX really?) Requests that might have been supported by the pending circuit thus become unsupported, and a new circuit needs to be constructed.
If a stream "begin" attempt fails with an EXITPOLICY error, we decide that the exit node's exit policy is not correctly advertised, so we treat the exit node as if it were a non-exit until we retrieve a fresh descriptor for it.
Excessive amounts of either type of failure can indicate an attack on anonymity. See discussion of path bias detection for how excessive failure is handled.